Information on regulations, news and alternatives related to restraint and seclusion in schools.
Collection of Resources Related to Restraint and SeclusionEdit
Regulations, Policies, Forms and Laws Edit
Other states Edit
DoE Review of laws and regulations in all 50 states from, 2009
Work of Legislative Committe in Maine
Extensive collection of resources put together by people in Maine
Nebraska, Developing School Policies & Procedures for Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Nebraska Schools
Proposed Arizona Legislation
NY State Time out room policy
Article on new law in Alaska: http://www.wral.com/law-regulates-use-of-restraint-in-schools/14114690/
Federal guidelines and resource document from May, 2012
Review of pending law on restraints in Congress
Disability Scoop Web sites review of Restraint legislation in Congress
COPAA (committee of parents advocates and attorneys) resources
Great collection of resources from US HHS autism coordinating committee
Article on analysis of OCR data and regulations by UNH, include link to study showing that regulations and law don't necessarily help:
Links to this research paper: http://scholars.unh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1223&context=carsey
Alliance to Prevent Restraint, Aversive Interventions and Seclusion (APRAIS). (2010). [Letter to Rep. Miller and Rep. McMorris Rodgers in support of HR 4247]. Retrieved from http://www.nashia.org/pdf/organization_lettr_restrain_seclusion_education.pdf
American Civil Liberties Union ⁄ Human Rights Watch (ACLU ⁄ HRW). (2009). Impairing education: Corporal punishment of students with disabilities in U.S. public schools. Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/08/11/impairing-education-0
Anthony, W. A., & Huckshorn, K. A. (2008). Principled leadership in mental health systems and programs. Boston, MA: Boston University Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation.
Arthur, I. (2008). Time-out, seclusion and restraint in Indiana schools: Literature review. Retrieved from http://www.in.gov/ipas/files/SR_Lit_Review_Final_AA.pdf
Azeem, M. W., Aujla, A., Rammerth, M., Binsfeld, G., & Jones, R. B. (2011). Effectiveness of six core strategies based on trauma informed care in reducing seclusions and restraints at a child and adolescent psychiatric hospital. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 24, 11–15.
Barton, S. A., Johnson, M. R., & Price, L. V. (2009). Achieving restraint-free on an inpatient behavioral health unit. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Service, 47, 34–40.
Bullard, L., Fulmore, D., & Johnson, K. (2003). Reducing the use of restraints and seclusion: Promising practices and successful strategies. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
Busch, A. B., & Shore, M. F. (2000). Seclusion and restraint: A review of recent literature. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8, 261–270. Butler, J. (2009). Preventing Harmful Restraint and Seclusion in Schools Act: What does it mean for children with disabilities? Retrieved from http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/restraint.hr4247.butler.htm
Caldwell, E., & LeBel, J. (2010). Reducing restraint and seclusion: How to implement organizational change. Children’s Voice, 19(2), 10–14.
Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (Center on PBIS). (2004). School-wide positive behavior support: Implementers’ blueprint and self-assessment. Eugene: University of Oregon.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2008). Hospitals –Restraint ⁄ Seclusion Interpretive Guidelines & Updated State Operations Manual (SOM) Appendix A: Interpretive Guidelines §482.13(e)(6). Author. Retrieved on November 15, 2011, from http://www.cms.gov/manuals/Downloads/som107ap_a_hospitals.pdf
Colton, D. (2008). Leadership’s and program’s role in organizational and cultural change to reduce seclusions and restraints. In M. A. Nunno, D. M. Day, & L. B. Bullard (Eds.), For our own safety: Examining the safety of high-risk interventions for children and young people (pp. 143–166). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
Couvillon, M. A., Bullock, L. M., & Gable, R. A. (2009). Tracking behavior assessment methodology and support strategies: A national survey of how schools utilize functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 14, 215–228.
Daffern, M., Howells, K., & Ogloff, J. (2007). What’s the point? Towards a methodology for assessing the function of psychiatric inpatient aggression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 101–111.
Day, D. M. (2000). A review of the literature on restraints and seclusion with children and youth: Toward the development of a perspective in practice. Toronto, ON: The Intersectorial ⁄ Interministerial Steering Committee on Behaviour Management Interventions for Children and Youth in Residential and Hospital Settings.
Day, D. M. (2002). Examining the therapeutic utility of restraints and seclusion with children and youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 266–278.
Day, D. M. (2008). The literature on the therapeutic effectiveness of physical restraints with children and youth. In M. A. Nunno, L. B. Bullard, & D. M. Day (Eds.), For our own safety: Examining the safety of high-risk interventions for children and young people (pp. 27– 44). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
Department of Education. (2010). Digest of education statistics: 2009. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/
Diament, M. (2010a, August 3). Restraint and Seclusion Bill hits bumpy road on path to Senate. Retrieved from http://www.disabilityscoop.com/2010/08/03/restraint-senate-iep/9615/
Diament, M. (2010b, November 17) Time runs out for school restraint, seclusion bill. Disability Scoop. Retrieved from http://www.disabilityscoop.com/2010/11/17/time-runs-out-restraint-seclusion/11283/
Domjan, M. (2010). The principles of learning and behavior (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donat, D. C. (1998). Impact of a mandatory behavior consultation on seclusion ⁄ restraint utilization in a psychiatric hospital. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 29, 13–19.
Donat, D. C. (2003). An analysis of successful efforts to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint at a public psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1119–1123.
Duncan, A. (2009, July 31). Press release. Secretary Duncan sends letter to chief state school officers on restraint and seclusion in schools. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/08/08032009a.html
Duncan, A. (2010, February 24). Press release. U.S. Department of Education makes public state-by-state restraint and seclusion information. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2010/02/02242010.html
Dunlap, K., Goodman, S., McEvoy, C., & Paris, F. (2010). School-wide positive behavioral interventions & supports: Implementation guide. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Education.
Garinger, G. (2009). Annual report 2008. Boston, MA: Office of the Child Advocate. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/childadvocate/ about/annual_report.pdf
Gershoff, E. T., & Bitensky, S. H. (2007). The case against corporal punishment of children. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, 231–272.
GovTrack. (2011). Text of H.R. 1381: Keeping All Students Safe Act. Retrieved from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/billtext.xpd?bill= h112-1381
Haimowitz, S., Urff, J., & Huckshorn, K. A. (2006). Restraint and seclusion: A risk management guide. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors.
Medical references to danger of prone position Edit
These need clarification and summarization (GS 10/6/2014)
Anaesthesia. 2006 Feb;61(2):138-41.
Haemodynamic effects of the prone position: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16430566 We conclude that turning healthy patients prone produces a clinically significant reduction in cardiac output
Department of Anesthesiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. Prone positioning decreases blood pressure and cardiac function. Several studies have evaluated changes in cardiac function after prone positioning, and linked them to reduced venous return and ventricular compliance
Advocacy and News Edit
Advocacy Group with many resources
US Congress group working on restraint and seclusion
Senate Hearings on Keeping Schools Safe Act
Bill Lichtenstein's page of news and resources
Links to ground breaking news story by Hartford Courant in 1990s
Keeping All Students Safe group
Stop hurting kids web site TASH and other groups share a collection of great information and a video]
Families against restraint blog
Alternatives, Training and Ways to Reduce Restraints Edit
- Information on the six main things a program or school can do to reduce restraint. 6 strategies template
- Crisis Prevention Institute (restraint and non-violent de-escalation training): http://www.crisisprevention.com/home
- Article on how restraints were ended at Bellevue Hospital (this article is gone , if anyone can find it again please post a link)
- Report on Restraint Reduction Ideas for Parents by Tash.org This link is broken, looking for new URL
- Preventing the Use of Restraint and Seclusion with Young Children: The Role of Effective, Positive Practices
- Guide book for how to train teachers to avoid restraint: Guidebook for teachers and others
Positive Behavioral Supports Edit
The primary way to reduce restraints in a school or district is to implement positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS or PBS) AKA School Wide Positive Behavioral Support (SWPBS).
Positive Behavioral Support Seclusion and Restraint Policy
One implementation of positive supports is called responsive classrooms.
Functional Behavioral Analysis Edit
The primary way to change problem behavior of a child which may lead to a restraint is called Functional Behavioral Analysis/Assessment (FBA). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_analysis_(psychology)
FBA is sometimes considered part of Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_behavior_analysis, an intervention or strategy most commonly used to help children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.
An FBA typically results in a behavior intervention plan or behavior support plan.
There is significant controversy about whether restraint should be included in BIPs or IEPs. IMHO restraint should not be part of either.
A report on restraint, seclusion and aversive procedures one year after the passage of the Keeping All Students Safe Act in the U.S. House of Representatives This bill was not passed by the Senate yet. This report includes many distrubng media stories.
US Office of Civil Rights Data collection include incidents of restraint. Data for 2009 and 2011-2012 school year data is available. Not all school districts report this data so don't assume there were no restraints based solely on this information.
See: http://ocrdata.ed.gov/ then find the school district, then find discipline and physical restraints.
Here's an example: http://ocrdata.ed.gov/Page?t=d&eid=26842&syk=5&pid=372
Restraint and Seclusion:Resource Document and other documents related to restraint and seclusion can be found at: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/seclusion/index.html
In 2009 the National Disability Rights Network published School is Not Supposed to Hurt: Investigative Report on Abusive Restraint and Seclusion in Schools. This report and others on the issue can be found at: http://www.ndrn.org/issues/abuse-and-neglect/restraint-and-seclusion.html
Report on danger of prone restraints: Media:DRCA_Prone_restraint_report.pdf
Town policies on restraint Edit
Cambridge Public Schools Guidelines: http://p5cdn4static.sharpschool.com/UserFiles/Servers/Server_3042785/File/Migration/physical_restraint_policy.pdf?rev=0
Cambridge Public Schools Policy: http://p5cdn4static.sharpschool.com/UserFiles/Servers/Server_3042785/File/Migration/CPS_PhysicalRestraintGuidelines.pdf?rev=0
Restraint in Hospital Settings Edit
Spring Harbor Hospital Edit
Add link to restraint data from Medicare/Medicaid reports here.
Other Useful Links Edit
Position of Disability Law Center on Mass regulations:
Comments from Doug Heffernan on Mass regulations:
Article on data from Ohio:
Article on Syracuse trial of principal for restraint: >br> http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2014/10/syracuse_principal_indicted_on_perjury_endangering_charges_in_illegal_timeout_ro.html
Editorial in Syracuse NY Paper: http://www.syracuse.com/opinion/index.ssf/2014/10/its_time_to_phase_out_timeout_rooms_in_our_schools_editorial.html
NBC NY story on restraint of a 5yo boy put into mechanical restraints in NY City schools. http://www.nbcnewyork.com/investigations/public-schools-restraints-soft-handcuffs-seclusion-277802161.html
List of schools with restraint history posted in 2010: http://www.examiner.com/article/does-your-school-have-a-secret-history-of-abusing-disabled-children-find-out-here
Article on Cambridge Hospital ending use of restraints.
http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Seclusion%20and%20Restraints%20Final%20Report.pdf Senate Report
http://www.disabilityscoop.com/restraint-seclusion/ Disability Scoop coverage
http://www.nbcnewyork.com/investigations/Children-Disabilities-Time-Out-Rooms-Restraints-New-Jersey-249326291.html Report from NJ
"Act Now to Keep Students Safe" (Truthout): http://www.truth-out.org/opinion/item/23314-act-now-to-keep-students-safe
"Still a Terrifying Way to Discipline Children: One Year Later" (Huffington Post): http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bill-lichtenstein/still-a-terrifying-way-to_2_b_4404637.html
OCR Finding against use of restraint and seclusion in Virginia: http://legalclips.nsba.org/2014/08/07/ocr-finds-virginia-districts-use-of-restraint-and-seclusion-on-special-needs-students-violates-their-rights-under-federal-disability-law/
More restraint and seclusion legal references: http://legalclips.nsba.org/tag/restraint-and-seclusion/
Research paper on Adverse Effects Associated With Physical Restraint, mostly in hospitals: http://ww1.cpa-apc.org:8080/publications/archives/CJP/2003/june/mohr.asp
2014 article from Dairen CT http://www.darientimes.com/29141/area-responds-to-dariens-restraint-and-seclusion-data/
HB 81, Rep. Dorothy Hukill’s bill regarding the “use, prevention, and reduction of seclusion and restraint on students with disabilities in public schools,” moved to the PreK-12 Policy Committee Wednesday afternoon, three weeks after the bill’s first reading March 2. http://myfloridahouse.gov/Sections/Bills/billsdetail.aspx?BillId=42208&
Florida Families Against Restraint and Seclusion, co-wrote the bill and submitted it in 2007. http://floridafamiliesagainstrestraint.blogspot.com/
•The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration http://www.samhsa.gov/ •The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors: Office of Technical Assistance http://www.nasmhpd.org/index.aspx •Pennsylvania Recovery and Resiliency: Statewide Initiative http://www.parecovery.org/ •National Disability Rights Network http://www.ndrn.org/index.php